The Macolin Convention provides for the introduction of a mechanism of exchange of information between the various national jurisdictions and key-stakeholders, the National Platform.
This framework – a central coordination Platform, the Conventional Follow-up Committee, connected with National Platforms – confirms the understanding that a developed multi-stakeholder integrated approach at international, national and local level in coordination and cooperation are key to success in creating a resilient sport’s integrity system against the manipulation of sports competitions.
Such platforms aim at strengthening the co-operation framework among private and public bodies, including and facilitating the exchange of information.
Chapter III – Exchange of information
Article 13 – National platform
- Each Party shall identify a national platform addressing manipulation of sports competition. The national platform shall, in accordance with domestic law, inter alia:
- serve as an information hub, collecting and disseminating information relevant to the fight against manipulation of sports competitions to the relevant organisation and authorities;
- coordinate the fight against manipulation of sports competitions;
- receive, centralise and analyse information on irregular and suspicious bets placed on sports competitions taking place on the territory of the Party and, where appropriate, issue alerts;
- transmit information on possible infringements of laws or sports regulations referred to in this Convention to public authorities or to sports organisations and/or sports betting operators;
- co-operate with all organisations and relevant authorities at national and international level, including national platforms of other States.
- Each Party shall communicate to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe the name and addresses of the national platform.
The approval and entering into force of the Convention’ framework in 2019 and of its National Platforms have overcome:
- “The lack of a coherent and comparable legal basis between Member States (that) have made cooperation in fighting crime more difficult, in particular regarding the exchange of information between law enforcement agencies. This is particularly relevant as match-fixing often has a transnational dimension (in “A mapping of criminal law provisions in EU 27 – KEA European Affairs”, 2012).
Considering the multifactor and transnational characteristic of the threat, states are therefore encouraged by the Convention to create a National Platform to enable and promote cooperation and exchange of information among stakeholders.
Besides public authorities’ participation in multi-stakeholder initiatives, civil organisations’ (especially sports organisations) participation is a natural and necessary element in successful co-operation. (IO3)
- Strengthening coordination and cooperation (…) at the national level, there is need for strong cooperation frameworks with the participation of sport, law enforcement and criminal justice authorities and other relevant State authorities. UNODC2021
The setting-up of National Platform is a key-element in the Macolin Convention’s operationality. Such platforms serve as an information hub, collecting and disseminating information relevant to the fight against manipulation of sports competitions to the relevant organisation and authorities.
The main tasks of the Follow-up Committee are to:
- Assess the compliance of States Parties legislation, policies and practices with the Convention;
- Make recommendations to the Parties on measures to ensure efficient co-operation between the relevant public authorities, sports organisations and betting operators;
- Prepare opinions to the attention of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe; and
- Promote the Convention and inform relevant stakeholders and the public about the activities undertaken within the framework of the Convention. Macolin’s Follow-up Committee 2023.
EU Member-States should establish a National Platform under the terms of the Macolin Convention.
States should consider, when setting up such National Platform, to enlarge its scope to accommodate multi-stakeholder’s cooperation and exchange of information to address sport integrity threats beyond match-fixing. (IO4)
- The Wood Review recommended that the Government establish a national sport integrity agency that could cohesively draw together and develop existing sport integrity capabilities, knowledge and expertise.
- In February 2019, the Government announced its response to the Wood Review, and among a string of reforms targeting doping, match-fixing and illegal betting, agreed to establish a single sport integrity agency. In April 2019, it introduced legislation to establish Sport Integrity Australia. The organisation will implement Australia ́s international obligations under both the UNESCO International Convention against Doping in Sport and, once in force and binding on Australia, the Council of Europe’s Convention on the Manipulation of Sports Competitions (the Macolin Convention). In Guidelines on sport integrity Action 3 of the Kazan Action Plan, EPAS, Council of Europe, 2020
Each National Platform should include mechanisms for sharing relevant information, namely relating with risks assessment, about the types and object of the betting products to the competition organisers, and in initiating or carrying out investigations or proceedings concerning the manipulation of sports competitions. (IO3)
- To ensure that the risk assessed is effectively reduced, a mitigation plan should be published and an Audit and Risk Assessment Committee could endorse the measures that lower the identified risk under International Standards Organisation (ISO) standards (ISO 31000:2009, Risk Management – Principles and Guidelines). Sorbonne-ICSS 2014
The National Platform should promote active campaigns to raise awareness to the need and public interest of actively protecting the integrity of sports (and its competitions) and to achieve an active engagement of all the key-stakeholders. (IO2)
The National Platform should contribute to identify the best suited mechanisms to deter potential match-fixers, including reducing opportunities for temptation (e.g. restricted access to players and officials, payment of salaries on time), improving detection methods (e.g. partnerships with betting monitoring systems, deployment of sports events ‘integrity stewards’ who watch over a sports event) and strengthening the moral boundaries through education and awareness raising. Sorbone-ICSS2014
Memorandums of Understanding and/or agreements should be established in accordance with national and international laws on data protection, between the relevant stakeholders for an effective and timely exchange of information. (IO4)
An intelligence database of ‘alerts’ of suspicious betting activities, suspicious sporting events, suspected/convicted match-fixers, should be implemented under the National Platform. Sorbone-ICSS2014
The National Platform should determine and update typologies of manipulations of sports competitions and recommend which behaviours should be considered an offence under criminal law and/or disciplinary regulations. (IO3)